APFC PANELS


APFC Panel has microcontroller based programmable controller which switches the capacitor banks of suitable capacity automatically in multiple stages by directly reading the reactive load (RKVA) which works in the principle of VAR sensing tends to maintain the PF to 0.99 Lag. The capacitor banks may be selected in number of stages as 4/6/8 according to the load pattern. Modern power networks consist of wide variety of electrical and power electronics loads, in case of such varying loads, the power factor also varies as a function of the load requirements. So, it is practically difficult to maintain consistent power factor by the use of fixed compensation i.e. fixed capacitors which shall need to be manually switched to suit the variations of the load. It can lead to situations where the installation can have a low power factor leading to higher demand charges and levy of power factor penalties. In addition to not being able to achieve the desired power factor it is also possible that the use of fixed compensation can also result in leading power factor under certain load conditions. This is also unhealthy for the installation as it can result in over voltages, saturation of transformers, maloperation of diesel generating sets, penalties by electricity supply authorities etc. It is therefore necessary to automatically vary, without manual intervention, the compensation to suit the load requirements. This is achieved by using on Automatic Power Factor Correction (APFC) system which can ensure consistently high power factor without any manual intervention. In addition, the occurrence of leading power factor will be prevented.APFC products are fully automatic in operation and can be used to achieve, consistently high power factor under fluctuating load conditions Reduced KVA demand charges, Lower energy consumption in the installation by reducing losses Preventive leading power factor in an installation.

Install APFC Panel to avoid penalties and enjoy the benefits automatically. For maintaining the power factor according to the load factor, proper capacity of capacitors is to be connected. The value of capacitors to be connected will vary with respect to load and its existing PF. There are two ways to maintain PF-

Fixing of capacitor at the load end permanently or at the mains. Generally which is recommended for the fixed load like pumps, fans etc. and it is not possible for the load which has variations in the load and PF.

ABOUT PRODUCT

The power factor can be maintained by installing Automatic Power Factor Control Panel (APFC Panel)
SAI AUTOMATION SYSTEM design and manufacture automatic power factor correction panel(APFC PANEL)

Power Factor is a ratio that represents actual power dissipated in an A.C. circuit to the product of R.M.S. voltage and current. The phase difference between voltage and current is caused by reactance in the circuit and represents the power that does no useful work.

The power factor is low in industrial settings where most of the plant energy is used to power electric motors. It is lowest when the induction motors tend to be oversized and under-loaded. A lagging (less than 1.0) power factor causes some additional energy loss because more current is required to deliver a required amount of power. Correcting power factors can be an appropriate and cost-effective measure.

The inductive load is a major cause of poor factors and which is responsible for unnecessarily power loss, hence it results in rise of electricity bills of industrial, commercial consumers so Reactive power compensation very needs of today’s industries. We can easily control and maintain power factor near to unity with the Automatic Power Factor Correction Panel.

SPECIFICATIONS

The APFC Panel shall be metal clad, indoor type floor-mounted in Non drawout execution. Fabricated from Sheet steel shall be CRCA of minimum 2.0 mm thickness. Incomer Circuit breaker or MCB shall be mounted in a separate compartment and Metering compartment along with APFC Relay etc shall be separate. The position of various control switches, push buttons, louvers etc. requiring manual operation. The operational Height of Panel shall be at a height not less than 300mm and shall not exceed 1850mm from the finished floor level. Name plate for each incoming and outgoing feeder at front. All equipments of similar rating shall be interchangeable.

CONCEPTS OF APFC PANEL:

when power factor is unity ,then industries receive active power or useful power only i.e. KW=KVA
If it is lagging P.F ,the industries receive both useful power (KW) and reactive power(use less power) (KVAr). To meet this reactive power, distribution transformer capacity also to be increased. Then only we can avoid low voltage, losses etc. So we have to provide APFC panel to bring the P.F to unity.
In case of rapidly varying and scattered loads it becomes difficult to maintain a high power factor by manually switching on/off the capacitors in proportion to variation of load within a installation. This drawback is overcome by using an APFC panel (Automatic Power Factor Correction Panel) which not only maintains a high power factor but also eliminates the need for constant manual intervention.

Features of APFC RELAY

  • Measurements are with Class-1 accuracy.
  • Advance Automatic synchronization feature. It is capable of giving correct results even for wrong connections
  • at CT terminals & also the wrong polarity of CTs.
  • Load V,I, and THD measurement.
  • Capable of doing reactive power measurements on every cycle of the mains waveform.
  • Standard 144 X 144 cabinet for panel door flush mounting.
  • Serial communication through standard Dedicated protocols.
  • One RS-232 communication port is provided on front fascia.
  • Four months of data logging is possible data in the form of hourly Records Fault Records– recording all electrical values.
  • Event Protections

  • Over/under Voltage(OV/UV) ,Over/Under frequency(OF/UF) ,Under load(UL),Over Current(OC), Over temperature(OT),Neutral Fault(NF),Control Fuse fault(CF),Over Temperature(OT) ,Voltage THD(VH),Current THD(IH).

ADVANTAGES OF APFC PANEL

  • Ability to maintain a constant high power factor.
  • Suitable for both balanced and unbalanced load.
  • Improves efficiency of the system by reducing losses.
  • Minimizing the line losses &harmonics.
  • Economical with faster payback periods.
  • Cost reduction in the electricity bill by 25%.


BENEFITS OF APFC PANEL

  • Consistently high power factor under fluctuating loads.
  • Prevention of leading power factor
  • Eliminate power factor penalty
  • Lower energy consumption by reducing losses
  • Continuously sense and monitor load
  • Automatically switch on/off relevant capacitor steps for consistent power supply
  • Ensure easy user interface
  • Protect under any internal fault
  • Advance ᶙ-relay with communication facility
  • User friendly, aesthetically designed enclosure, dust and vermin proof
  • Avoid excess bill due to low power factor.


Cost benefits of Power Factor improvement

  • Reduced Maximum demand (kVA) charges on the utility bill
  • Reduced distribution losses(kWh) within the plant network
  • Better voltage i.e. motor terminal and improve performance of the motor.
  • Reduce heat loss of transformers and distribution equipment
  • Prolong the life of distribution equipment
  • Stabilizes voltage levels and increases your system’s capacity, etc.